Artist's impression of the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) on Cerro Armazones
23 March 2016
Scientists and engineers from the UK astronomy research community are celebrating after contracts have been signed to commence mapping out the detailed specifications of two new instruments that will be key to the success of what will be the World’s largest visible and infrared telescope, the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT).
The two new instruments, named MOSAIC (the Multi-Object Spectrograph) and HIRES (the High Resolution Spectrograph), will be world-leading workhorse instruments for the European Southern Observatory (ESO)’s telescope and will both be reliant on substantial involvement from UK science and engineering teams.
Professor Colin Cunningham, from STFC's UK Astronomy Technology Centre (UK ATC) is leader of the UK E-ELT Project Office and said of the announcement "The start of these conceptual designs is an important step toward furnishing the E-ELT with the full range of capabilities required for headline science in the next decade. UK institutes are playing leading roles in both instruments, ensuring that UK scientists will have access to the first exciting results when they become operational."
The University of Cambridge is providing the UK science lead on HIRES and the STFC’s UK ATC in Edinburgh will lead the infrared subsystem (with contributions from The University of Cambridge and institutes from 5 other countries). Durham University is providing adaptive optics and fiber expertise. Heriot Watt University is developing laser comb technology that has the potential to make a major contribution to the critical calibration function.
Durham University is providing a co-project lead and adaptive optics expertise as well as technical lead on the instrument core structure for the MOSAIC instrument. The STFC’s UK ATC is providing the key roles of project scientist and lead systems engineer as well as leading the near infrared spectrograph and project management of the instrument core structure. Oxford University and STFC’s RAL Space are leading the positioning system and providing the instrument scientist.
Professor Roberto Maiolino, from the University of Cambridge, is the HIRES project scientist and said “HIRES will be an extraordinary machine, which will enable scientists to pursue a multitude of goals unachievable by current instrumentation, such as detecting signatures of life in other solar systems and revealing the fingerprints of the first generation of stars in the primordial Universe."
Dr Chris Evans based at STFC’s UKATC is the MOSAIC Project Scientist and said "After significant effort in assembling the case from the research community for a multi-object spectrograph on the E-ELT, I'm tremendously excited to start the advanced design of MOSAIC. Building on scientific discoveries expected from the James Webb Space Telescope in the coming years, MOSAIC will give us our first detailed insights into the properties of galaxies just emerging from the cosmic dawn after the Big Bang."
The E-ELT telescope, once it is operational in 2024, will enable astronomers to see more distant objects than previously possible, allowing them to understand younger structures in our night sky than ever before — helping improve our understanding of the Universe, the effects of dark matter and energy, and planets outside of our solar system.
Prof Simon Morris, Head of the Department of Physics at Durham University and UK co-project lead on MOSAIC, said “This latest step on the way to delivering the world’s largest optical telescope means we are on schedule to start delivering major breakthroughs in astronomy in the mid 2020s’. It has been 10 years since we first started thinking about this project, and so it is very exciting that we are able to start on the final design. Apart from providing answers to many current questions, the chance is very high for serendipitous, unexpected new insights by using these instruments.”
The MOSAIC instrument will allow astronomers to probe some of the deepest mysteries of the Universe: when did the first galaxies form and how did they aggregate into large structures like the Milky Way; how are ordinary matter and dark matter distributed throughout the Universe; and if there are planets around stars in galaxies beyond the Milky Way?
Gavin Dalton, Professor of Astrophysics at Oxford University believes that “The MOSAIC instrument, once operational, will enable researchers from around the globe to better understand some of the big questions in astronomy, including telling us more about the role of dark matter. By enabling simultaneous observations of large numbers of faint stars and galaxies, MOSAIC will allow us to explore in unprecedented detail the full range of environments of the earliest objects in the Universe.”
HIRES will be used for extremely detailed and accurate studies of individual objects and it will allow astronomers to: study the atmospheres of planets around other stars in a search for the signatures of life; probe the evolution of galaxies; identify the signature of the very first generation of stars in the primordial Universe; and determine whether some of the fundamental constants of physics, which regulate most physical processes in the Universe, actually change with time.
The two consortia are among the largest ever to collaborate in the production of astronomical instruments, illustrating the multinational efforts involved in making these spectrographs.
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University of Cambridge: Sarah Collins
Durham University: Leighton Kitson
University of Oxford News Office
The E-ELT will make huge strides toward our understanding of the Universe, the effects of dark matter and energy and planets outside of the solar system. Its 39 metres in diameter mirror will collect 15 times more light than any existing telescope and it will produce images 16 times sharper than the Hubble space-based telescope.
Perched on top of Cerro Armazones in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, the E-ELT is one of the biggest global science collaborations in history and includes an £88 million investment by the UK government. UK industry has already won over £10 million worth of contracts from the E-ELT and that figure is expected to at least match the UK government’s investment by the time construction is complete.
The contract to begin design studies for MOSAIC was signed on 18 March 2016 by ESO and the CNRS-INSU, the leading institution in the MOSAIC consortium . The instrument will combine high spectral and spatial resolution and will carry out wide-field surveys in the visible and infrared parts of the spectrum.
The contract to begin design studies for HIRES was signed on 22 March 2016 by ESO and the HIRES consortium, led by INAF . HIRES is a high-resolution spectrograph, simultaneously operating at visible and infrared wavelengths, that will be used for extremely detailed and accurate studies of individual objects.
More videos can be downloaded from ESO’s website.
More E-ELT images.
These can all be used as long as ESO is credited.
 The MOSAIC consortium comprises institutions from 11 countries:
GEPI and LESIA, Observatoire de Paris; Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille; IRAP, Toulouse, ONERA (France); UK Astronomy Technology Centre, STFC; RALSpace, STFC; The University of Oxford; Durham University (UK); IAG, São Paulo; National Astrophysics Laboratory, Itajuba (Brazil); Amsterdam University; NOVA, Leiden Observatory, Universiteit Leiden (Netherlands); Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam and Goettingen University (Germany); Universities of Helsinki, Turku and Oulu (Finland); Universities of Stockholm, Lund and Uppsala (Sweden); Complutense University of Madrid and Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía-CSIC (Spain); INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma (Italy); Vienna University (Austria); Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciências do Espaço Universidade de Lisboa and Universidade de Porto; CENTRA (Portugal).
 The HIRES consortium comprises institutions from 12 countries:
Board of Observational Astronomy, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte; Mauá Institute of Technology (Brazil); Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Centre of Astro Engineering; Universidad de Chile, Department of Astronomy; Universidad de Concepcion, Center of Astronomical Instrumentation; Universidad de Antofagasta (Chile); Niels Bohr Institute at the University of Copenhagen; Institute of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Aarhus (Denmark); Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille; Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble; Laboratoire Lagrange de l’Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur (France); Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics, Potsdam; Institut für Astrophysik, Universität Göttingen; Zentrum für Astronomie Heidelberg, Landessternwarte; Thüringer Landesternwarte Tautenburg; Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität Hamburg (Germany); Istituto Nazionale di AstroFisica (Italy — lead institution); Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics (Poland); Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço - Universidade do Porto and Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias; Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía-CSIC; Centro de Astrobiología (Spain); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University (Sweden); Université de Genève, Département d’Astronomie (Observatoire de Genève); Universität Bern, Physikalisches Institut (Switzerland); Cavendish Laboratory University of Cambridge; Institute of Astronomy University of Cambridge; UK Astronomy Technology Centre; Centre for Advanced Instrumentation - Durham University; Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences (School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University) (United Kingdom)